01 Nov Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Therapy in Regenerative Medicine
Human adipose tissue is the newly discovered source of pluripotent stem cells, which are called adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). They are considered to be ideal for applications in regenerative medicine.
Benefits of ADSC
They are more useful than the mesenchymal stem cells derived from other sources, as they can be easily harvested using minimally invasive techniques and yield more cells per gram of lipoaspirate. ADSCs are multipotent, which means that they differentiate into various cell types, such as osteocytes, adipocytes, neural cells, vascular endothelial cells, etc. They also have immunosuppressive properties and low immunogenicity. They secrete trophic factors that improve the regenerative outcome in the treatment of a wide range of diseases.
How are they extracted
Subcutaneous adipose tissue consists mainly of mature adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which includes fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pre-adipocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, and ADSCs. ADSCs can be isolated from fat tissue by collagenase digestion and centrifugal density gradient separation.
There are various clinical trials underway covering a broad range of potential applications of ADSC in regenerative medicine, such as soft tissue regeneration, skeletal tissue repair, ischemic injuries, myocardial infarction, and immune disorders, etc.
ADSCs can form bone (osteogenesis). This can be helpful in conditions like avascular necrosis of the femoral head that can currently be treated only with total hip replacement. ADSCs has been shown to enhance osteogenesis in the injected hip.
Potential uses of ADSC exists in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The growth factors and stem cells in lipoaspirate can help heal /attenuate hypertrophic scars.
Cartilage and Intervertebral discs can also be regenerated and repaired by ADSC therapy. Transplanted ADSCs play a critical role in the efficacy of the therapy by interacting with local chondrocytes in cartilage defects
There is a therapeutic potential of ADSCs in the setting of chronic heart failure or acute myocardial infarction when given as an intracoronary injection. A study has shown improved cardiac function, perfusion, and remodeling after acute myocardial infarction 4 weeks after ADSCs were engrafted in the infarct.
ADSC has hepatocyte-like cells and growth factors that have the ability to take up low-density lipoprotein and to produce urea. ADSCs were able to be differentiated into hepatocytes and capable to express albumin when transplanted into mouse models.
ADSCs can differentiate into pancreatic cells as well, that produce pancreatic hormones insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon.
ADSCs could be beneficial in the cell-therapeutic treatment of neuronal diseases, such as stroke, ALS or Parkinson’s. ADSCs can differentiate into neuron-like cells and in addition, promote endogenous neuron survival. ADSCs have been shown to decrease stroke symptoms by direct cell replacement, angiogenesis, enhanced immunosuppression, etc.
There are newer therapeutic approaches being introduced in the ADSC portfolio, and all of these are being vigorously tested for efficacy and safety through a wide variety of clinical trials that are currently underway.